STATE SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION “PHYSICAL-TECHNICAL
INSTITUTE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF SCIENCES OF BELARUS”

Industrial technologies of surface engineering

Surface engineering combines methods for directional changes of physical and chemical properties of the material surface layers by deformation, modification, deposition of films, coatings, protective layers using various combined methods

  • ion thermochemical treatment
  • laser treatment of materials
  • nitrocarburizing
  • induction heating
  • magnetic-pulse treatment and others

 

New materials

New materials are composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic, basalt fiber reinforced polymers, aramid plastic and metal composites, high-tech ceramics – aluminum, zirconia, oxide, nitride, carbide ceramics and others, new construction materials – new insulating materials from foam glass, modifying agents of roadway surfacing based on rubber powder or polymer fibers, new concrete types. The application range of new materials is the widest – space and aircraft industry, construction engineering, medicine, protection and safety

Metal working

The technology implies changing the shape and dimensions of billets due to the effect of applied forces with a subsequent result saving. The shape and dimensions of the product do not change after the pressure loss. In order to increase the plasticity, metal is heated to the specific temperature before the beginning of the treatment. The temperature is determined individually for each type of the material depending on its specific physical and chemical characteristics

Coatings, deposition technologies and equipment

Depending on the requirements made to operational characteristics of parts, there are three types of coatings

  • protective coatings for protecting the parts from corrosion in various aggressive environments, as well as at high temperatures;
  • protective and decorative coatings for the decoration of parts with simultaneous protection from corrosion
  • special coatings applied to confer special properties for the surface (wear-resistance, hardness, electrically insulating, magnetic properties and others) as well as for the recovery of worn parts

 

Casting technologies

Casting production is a field of mechanical engineering which deals with formed parts and billets by pouring the molten metal into the moulds where their cavity have the configuration of required parts

In the casting process, metal solidifies in the mould during the cooling process obtaining a casting mold – a finished part or a billet which can be mechanically treated if it is necessary (increase of the dimension accuracy and roughness reduction). In this respect, the casting production has the task to obtain casting moulds where the dimensions and the shape are as close as possible to the dimensions and the shape of the finished part. From 50% to 95% of all parts in machines and industrial equipment are manufactured by casting into moulds

Historical background

1931

The Physical-Technical Institute of AS of the BSSR was founded as a result of the reorganization of the structure of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR by the decree of the Presidium of AS of the BSSR dated March 29, 1931. The proposed reorganization of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR was approved by the resolution of the Council of People’s Commissars of the BSSR on May 13, 1931

1937

From 1937 to 1939 Director of the Institute was Dmitry Gorin (1907–1991). The Institute team continued to work in the field of metallurgy, heat treatment, the development of new devices for the structural analysis of metals and alloys, and instrument making

1947

In 1947 Academician Konstantin Gorev (1904-1988) was appointed director of the Institute. Under the leadership of K. Gorev, the laboratory of metallurgy was among the first in the USSR to begin work on the production of directionally crystallized eutectic alloys

1948

The Physical-Technical Institute was engaged in solving important fundamental and applied problems related to the creation of new technical means for enterprises of the machine-building and metal-working industries

1956

Since 1956 the Institute has been headed by Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR Vasily Severdenko (1904-1978). The name of this outstanding scientist and organizer of science in the field of plasticity, metal physics and metalworking is associated with research on the entire spectrum of problematic issues about metal material: deformability, resistance to deformation, thermomechanical modes of processes of hot, semi-hot and cold deformation, optimization of metal forming processes. With the arrival of V. Severdenko, the geography of implementation of the Institute’s developments has significantly expanded throughout the country. Since the beginning of the 60s, the Institute began to carry out work for enterprises on the basis of economic contracts

1970

In 1970 a department of the Physical-Technical Institute was organized in Mogilev, which later grew into the Institute of Technology of Metals

The Presidium of the Supreme body of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics awarded the Order of Labor Red Banner to the Physical-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Belarusian SSR for merits in the development of physical and technical sciences and training of scientific personnel

1986

ince 1983 Academician Stanislav Astapchik (1935–2015), a well-known scientist in the field of materials science of structural materials for mechanical engineering, has become the director of the Physical-Technical Institute of AS of the BSSR

In 1986 S. Astapchik, as part of a group of authors, was awarded the USSR State Prize in Science and Technology

2002

In 2002 Academician Anatoly Gordienko (1941) became the Director of the Institute. Under his leadership and with direct participation, the processes of recrystallization of large-sized blanks of heat-resistant titanium alloys, high-speed recrystallization annealing of pipes, hardening of sheet semi-finished products and items such as chassis, aircraft parts, obtaining armor materials were developed and introduced into production. For the development of the theory, technology and equipment for obtaining armored heterophase materials and the organization of their large-scale production for personal protective equipment A. Gordienko as part of the team of authors was awarded the State Prize of the BSSR in the field of science and technology (1988)

2003

In 2003 as a result of joining the Institute of the State Scientific Institution «Engineering Center «Plasmoteg» of NAS of Belarus», the Institute developed a new direction in the field of research and development of diamond-like coatings for various functional purposes for medicine, technology, agriculture

2015

Listed on the Board of Honor of the National Academy of Sciences

2016

In 2016 Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Vitali Zaleski, a well-known scientist in the field of electron beam and plasma technologies, was approved as the Director of the Institute. Under the leadership of V. Zaleski, the Institute is actively involved in innovative, international and socially significant projects, such as the creation of its own production of body armor for the needs of the Republic of Belarus; preparation of business plans for the development of enterprises and the implementation of projects within the framework of these plans; and the implementation of projects within the framework of these plans; providing complex scientific and technical solutions in the interests of a number of enterprises, creation of our own innovative industries in the field of surface engineering, thermal and chemical-thermal processing of materials; development and creation of superconducting accelerators of a new generation within the framework of an international scientific project of the “mega-science” level

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